History of rise and decline of Mughal empire in short


Aug 31, 2023

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan, in 1526. Babur had been exiled from his homeland in Central Asia and sought to conquer India as a way to restore his lost glory. He defeated the Lodi sultan, Ibrahim Lodi, at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526, and established himself as the ruler of Delhi.

Babur was a skilled military commander and administrator, and he quickly consolidated his power in Delhi. He built a strong army and created a centralized bureaucracy. He also promoted trade and commerce, and encouraged the arts and architecture. Under Babur’s rule, the Mughal Empire became a major power in India.

Babur’s son, Humayun, succeeded him to the throne in 1530. However, Humayun was a weak ruler, and he was soon overthrown by Sher Shah Suri, a Afghan warlord. Humayun was forced to flee India, and he spent the next 15 years in exile.

Humayun eventually returned to India in 1555 and regained the throne. However, he died two years later, and his son, Akbar, succeeded him. Akbar was a great ruler, and he is considered to be the greatest of the Mughal emperors. He expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest extent, and he also promoted religious tolerance and cultural synthesis.

Under Akbar’s rule, the Mughal Empire reached its golden age. The empire was prosperous and stable, and it became a major center of culture and learning. Akbar’s successors, Jahangir and Shah Jahan, continued to rule the empire with great success.

However, the Mughal Empire began to decline in the 18th century. The empire was weakened by internal conflicts and external threats. The British East India Company eventually took control of the empire in the 19th century, and the Mughal Empire came to an end in 1857.

Here is a table summarizing the important details of how the Mughals captured power in Delhi:

EventDateImportant details
First Battle of Panipat1526Babur defeats Ibrahim Lodi and establishes the Mughal Empire in Delhi.
Reign of Humayun1530-1540Humayun is a weak ruler and is overthrown by Sher Shah Suri.
Reign of Akbar1556-1605Akbar expands the Mughal Empire to its greatest extent and promotes religious tolerance and cultural synthesis.
Reign of Jahangir1605-1627Jahangir continues the expansion of the Mughal Empire.
Reign of Shah Jahan1628-1658Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal and other magnificent buildings.
Decline of the Mughal Empire1700-1857The Mughal Empire is weakened by internal conflicts and external threats.
End of the Mughal Empire1857The British East India Company takes control of the Mughal Empire.

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