 # Mastering the Mechanics of Heat: A Comprehensive Guide for Physics Students

## 12. All mathematical formula related to heat with explanation:

1. Heat transfer equation (Fourier’s Law):
Q = -k * A * (ΔT/Δx)
This equation relates the rate of heat transfer (Q) to the thermal conductivity (k), the cross-sectional area (A), and the temperature gradient (ΔT/Δx). It states that the rate of heat transfer is directly proportional to the temperature difference and area of heat transfer, and inversely proportional to the material’s thermal conductivity and distance over which heat is transferred.

2. Specific heat formula:
Q = m * c * ΔT
This formula calculates the amount of heat energy (Q) required to change the temperature of a mass (m) by a certain amount (ΔT), where c represents the specific heat capacity. It states that the amount of heat energy transferred is directly proportional to the mass and temperature change, and specific heat capacity of the material.

3. Latent heat formula:
Q = m * L
This formula calculates the amount of heat energy (Q) required for a substance to change its phase without changing its temperature. Here, m represents the mass of the substance, and L denotes the latent heat. It states that the amount of heat energy is directly proportional to the mass and the latent heat of the substance.

4. Heat transfer by conduction:
Q = k * A * (T1-T2)/D
This formula calculates the rate of heat conduction (Q) between two surfaces separated by a distance (D), with thermal conductivity (k) and cross-sectional area (A). It states that the rate of heat transfer is directly proportional to the temperature difference and the area of heat transfer, and inversely proportional to the distance over which heat is conducted.

5. Heat transfer by convection:
Q = h * A * ΔT
This equation calculates the rate of heat transfer (Q) involving convection, where h represents the convective heat transfer coefficient, A represents the surface area involved in heat transfer, and ΔT denotes the temperature difference between the object and its surroundings. It states that the rate of heat transfer is directly proportional to the temperature difference, surface area, and the convective heat transfer coefficient.

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